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glTexImage2D

Name

glTexImage2D — specify a two-dimensional texture image

C Specification

void glTexImage2D(GLenum target,
 GLint level,
 GLint internalformat,
 GLsizei width,
 GLsizei height,
 GLint border,
 GLenum format,
 GLenum type,
 const GLvoid * data);
 

Parameters

target

Specifies the target texture of the active texture unit. Must be GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_POSITIVE_X, GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_NEGATIVE_X, GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_POSITIVE_Y, GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_NEGATIVE_Y, GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_POSITIVE_Z, or GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_NEGATIVE_Z.

level

Specifies the level-of-detail number. Level 0 is the base image level. Level n is the nth mipmap reduction image.

internalformat

Specifies the internal format of the texture. Must be one of the following symbolic constants: GL_ALPHA, GL_LUMINANCE, GL_LUMINANCE_ALPHA, GL_RGB, GL_RGBA.

width

Specifies the width of the texture image. All implementations support 2D texture images that are at least 64 texels wide and cube-mapped texture images that are at least 16 texels wide.

height

Specifies the height of the texture image All implementations support 2D texture images that are at least 64 texels high and cube-mapped texture images that are at least 16 texels high.

border

Specifies the width of the border. Must be 0.

format

Specifies the format of the texel data. Must match internalformat. The following symbolic values are accepted: GL_ALPHA, GL_RGB, GL_RGBA, GL_LUMINANCE, and GL_LUMINANCE_ALPHA.

type

Specifies the data type of the texel data. The following symbolic values are accepted: GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_5_6_5, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_4_4_4_4, and GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_5_5_5_1.

data

Specifies a pointer to the image data in memory.

Description

Texturing maps a portion of a specified texture image onto each graphical primitive for which texturing is active. Texturing is active when the current fragment shader or vertex shader makes use of built-in texture lookup functions.

To define texture images, call glTexImage2D. The arguments describe the parameters of the texture image, such as height, width, level-of-detail number (see glTexParameter), and format. The last three arguments describe how the image is represented in memory.

Data is read from data as a sequence of unsigned bytes or shorts, depending on type. When type is GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, each of the bytes is interpreted as one color component. When type is one of GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_5_6_5, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_4_4_4_4, or GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_5_5_5_1, each unsigned short value is interpreted as containing all the components for a single texel, with the color components arranged according to format. Color components are treated as groups of one, two, three, or four values, again based on format. Groups of components are referred to as texels.

width × height texels are read from memory, starting at location data. By default, these texels are taken from adjacent memory locations, except that after all width texels are read, the read pointer is advanced to the next four-byte boundary. The four-byte row alignment is specified by glPixelStorei with argument GL_UNPACK_ALIGNMENT, and it can be set to one, two, four, or eight bytes.

The first element corresponds to the lower left corner of the texture image. Subsequent elements progress left-to-right through the remaining texels in the lowest row of the texture image, and then in successively higher rows of the texture image. The final element corresponds to the upper right corner of the texture image.

format determines the composition of each element in data. It can assume one of these symbolic values:

GL_ALPHA

Each element is a single alpha component. The GL converts it to floating point and assembles it into an RGBA element by attaching 0 for red, green, and blue. Each component is then clamped to the range [0,1].

GL_RGB

Each element is an RGB triple. The GL converts it to floating point and assembles it into an RGBA element by attaching 1 for alpha. Each component is then clamped to the range [0,1].

GL_RGBA

Each element contains all four components. The GL converts it to floating point, then each component is clamped to the range [0,1].

GL_LUMINANCE

Each element is a single luminance value. The GL converts it to floating point, then assembles it into an RGBA element by replicating the luminance value three times for red, green, and blue and attaching 1 for alpha. Each component is then clamped to the range [0,1].

GL_LUMINANCE_ALPHA

Each element is a luminance/alpha pair. The GL converts it to floating point, then assembles it into an RGBA element by replicating the luminance value three times for red, green, and blue. Each component is then clamped to the range [0,1].

Color components are converted to floating point based on the type. When type is GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, each component is divided by 2 8 - 1 . When type is GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_5_6_5, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_4_4_4_4, or GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_5_5_5_1, each component is divided by 2 N - 1 , where N is the number of bits in the bitfield.

Notes

internalformat must match format. No conversion between formats is supported during texture image processing. type may be used as a hint to specify how much precision is desired, but a GL implementation may choose to store the texture array at any internal resolution it chooses.

data may be a null pointer. In this case, texture memory is allocated to accommodate a texture of width width and height height. You can then download subtextures to initialize this texture memory. The image is undefined if the user tries to apply an uninitialized portion of the texture image to a primitive.

glTexImage2D specifies a two-dimensional or cube-map texture for the current texture unit, specified with glActiveTexture.

Errors

GL_INVALID_ENUM is generated if target is not GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_POSITIVE_X, GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_NEGATIVE_X, GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_POSITIVE_Y, GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_NEGATIVE_Y, GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_POSITIVE_Z, or GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_NEGATIVE_Z.

GL_INVALID_ENUM is generated if format or type is not an accepted value.

GL_INVALID_VALUE is generated if target is one of the six cube map 2D image targets and the width and height parameters are not equal.

GL_INVALID_VALUE is generated if level is less than 0.

GL_INVALID_VALUE may be generated if level is greater than log 2 max , where max is the returned value of GL_MAX_TEXTURE_SIZE when target is GL_TEXTURE_2D or GL_MAX_CUBE_MAP_TEXTURE_SIZE when target is not GL_TEXTURE_2D.

GL_INVALID_VALUE is generated if internalformat is not an accepted format.

GL_INVALID_VALUE is generated if width or height is less than 0 or greater than GL_MAX_TEXTURE_SIZE when target is GL_TEXTURE_2D or GL_MAX_CUBE_MAP_TEXTURE_SIZE when target is not GL_TEXTURE_2D.

GL_INVALID_VALUE is generated if border is not 0.

GL_INVALID_OPERATION is generated if format does not match internalformat.

GL_INVALID_OPERATION is generated if type is GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_5_6_5 and format is not GL_RGB.

GL_INVALID_OPERATION is generated if type is GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_4_4_4_4 or GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_5_5_5_1 and format is not GL_RGBA.

Associated Gets

glGet with argument GL_MAX_TEXTURE_SIZE or GL_MAX_CUBE_MAP_TEXTURE_SIZE

Examples

Create a framebuffer object with a texture-based color attachment and a texture-based depth attachment. Using texture-based attachments allows sampling of those textures in shaders.
// fbo_width and fbo_height are the desired width and height of the FBO.
// For Opengl <= 4.4 or if the GL_ARB_texture_non_power_of_two extension
// is present, fbo_width and fbo_height can be values other than 2^n for
// some integer n.

// Build the texture that will serve as the color attachment for the framebuffer.
GLuint texture_map;
glGenTextures(1, &texture_map);
glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture_map);

glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);
glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);
glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_CLAMP_TO_BORDER);
glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_CLAMP_TO_BORDER);

glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGBA, fbo_width, fbo_height, 0, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, NULL);

glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0);

// Build the texture that will serve as the depth attachment for the framebuffer.
GLuint depth_texture;
glGenTextures(1, &depth_texture);
glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, depth_texture);
glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_NEAREST);
glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_NEAREST);
glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE);
glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE);
glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT, fbo_width, fbo_height, 0, GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, NULL);
glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0);

// Build the framebuffer.
GLuint framebuffer;
glGenFramebuffers(1, &framebuffer);
glBindFramebuffer(GL_FRAMEBUFFER, (GLuint)framebuffer);
glFramebufferTexture2D(GL_FRAMEBUFFER, GL_COLOR_ATTACHMENT0, GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture_map, 0);
glFramebufferTexture2D(GL_FRAMEBUFFER, GL_DEPTH_ATTACHMENT, GL_TEXTURE_2D, depth_texture, 0);

GLenum status = glCheckFramebufferStatus(GL_FRAMEBUFFER);
if (status != GL_FRAMEBUFFER_COMPLETE)
    // Error

glBindFramebuffer(GL_FRAMEBUFFER, 0);
Create a texture object with linear mipmaps and edge clamping.
GLuint texture_id;
glGenTextures(1, &texture_id);
glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture_id);

glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);
glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR_MIPMAP_LINEAR);

glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE);
glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE);

// texture_data is the source data of your texture, in this case
// its size is sizeof(unsigned char) * texture_width * texture_height * 4
glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGBA, texture_width, texture_height, 0, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, texture_data);
glGenerateMipmap(GL_TEXTURE_2D); // Unavailable in OpenGL 2.1, use gluBuild2DMipmaps() insteads.

glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0);
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